- Do not use abbreviations for journal names in the reference list. (If the journal uses an ampersand, leave it.)
- Avoid abbreviations (acronyms) except for long, familiar terms (MMPI).
- Explain what an abbreviation means the first time it occurs: American Psychological Association (APA).
- If an abbreviation is commonly used as a word, it does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, REM, ESP).
- Do not use the old abbreviations for subject, experimenter, and observer (S, E, O).
The following abbreviations should NOT be used outside parenthetical comments:
- cf. [use compare]
- e.g. [use for example]
- etc. [use and so forth]
- i.e. [use that is]
- viz. [use namely]
- vs. [use versus]
Use periods when making an abbreviation within a reference (p. 6, 2nd ed.) (Do not hyper-rise the th in second or the rd in third)
Do not use periods within degree titles and organization titles (PhD, APA).
Do not use periods within measurements (lb, ft, s) except inches (in.).
Use s for second, m for meter.
To form plurals of abbreviations, add s alone, without apostrophe (PhDs, IQs, vols., Eds). (except for the last name of an author that ends in s--Jones possessive is Jones's
In using standard abbreviations for measurements, like m for meter, do not add an s to make it plural (100 seconds is 100 s).
Do not use the abbreviation "pp." for magazine or journal citations; just give the numbers themselves. Do use "pp." for citations of encyclopedia entries, chapters or articles in edited books.
Use two-letter postal codes for United States' state names (GA). Washington, DC has no periods.